Ca Mau is a new land deposited by alluvium, formed by two currents in the East Sea and the Gulf of Thailand, receiving alluvium from the Mekong River. In general, the province’s land is young, newly exploited and used, with average fertility, high organic matter content but due to alum and saline intrusion, it is suitable for aquaculture and planting mangrove and brackish forests.
Ca Mau has the following main soil groups:
Saline soil group covers an area of 150.278 ha, accounting for 28,84% of the natural area, distributed mainly in the districts of Dam Doi, Cai Nuoc, Ngoc Hien, Nam Can, Tran Van Thoi, U Minh and Thoi Binh. Saline soils are formed on marine sediments and river sediments. This is a young soil type, subject to regular or periodic flooding.
Acid sulfate soil covers an area of 334.925 ha, accounting for 64,27% of the natural area; mainly distributed in Thoi Binh, U Minh and Tran Van Thoi districts.
Saline acid sulphate soils are distributed in coastal areas. For non-saline alum soils, rice can be grown in the rainy season, alum-tolerant industrial crops such as sugarcane, pineapple, bananas, and melaleuca can be grown. For areas of alum that are affected by salinity, it is possible to plant mangroves and raise aquatic products. In addition, there is a group of peat soils under the melaleuca forest cover, with an area of about 10.564ha, distributed in U Minh and Tran Van Thoi districts and alluvial soil with an area of 9.507ha, distributed in districts of Ngoc Hien and Phu Tan.