Ca Mau had a total forest area of about 103,723 ha, accounting for 77% of the forests of the Mekong Delta, mainly submerged forests. Of which, natural forest is 9,179 ha and planted forest 94,544 ha. Ca Mau has 3 main forest types:
Ca Mau mangrove forest has a unique and diverse ecosystem, ranked 2nd in the world, after Amazonia forest in South America. Ca Mau mangrove forest covers an area of nearly 69,000ha. In particular, concentrated in the districts of Ngoc Hien, Nam Can, Dam Doi and Phu Tan.
Ca Mau mangrove forest is a vegetation with many species of trees such as: some species of mangroves, date palm, ferns, vines, etc. In particular, mangroves are the dominant tree species and have high economic value. According to statistics of the Minh Hai Mangrove Research and Application Center (December 1998), Ca Mau mangrove forest has 101 tree species. Of which, there are 32 official tree species belonging to 27 families.
Ca Mau mangrove forest: there are 28 species of mammals, belonging to 12 families. Among them, 5 species are in the Vietnam Red Book, 1 species in the IUCN Red Book, such as primates (long-tailed macaque, langurs), even-hoofed hoof (wild boar), carnivorous set (weasels, foxes and foxes) , foxes, otters …), 74 species of birds, 17 species of reptiles, 5 species of amphibians, 14 species of shrimp, 175 species of fish, 133 species of plankton.
U Minh cajuput forest has a total area of about 35,000 ha. Concentrating in districts of U Minh, Tran Van Thoi and Thoi Binh. U Minh cajuput forest belongs to inland wetland ecosystem, with cajuput forest on alum and peat soil. Along with U Minh Thuong (Kien Giang) is one of the only two places in Vietnam that has this forest ecosystem, and is an important and valuable wetland in the lower Mekong and Southeast Asia. The basic feature of the U Minh basin is the elevation of the basin shape, with the center of the basin being the U Minh Ha forest ecosystem, with the natural succession of the mangrove ecosystem shifting completely to melaleuca forest when going deep inland and gradually sweetening the basin.
U Minh cajuput forest has high value for biodiversity and plays an important role in stabilizing soil, hydrology, storing fresh water, providing fresh water for people and wildlife; prevent land acidification, regulate climate, conserve biodiversity in inland submerged forests.
Melaleuca flooded forests dominated absolute, under the forest canopy with many species of vines and other small trees. There are many species of animals such as wild boar, monkey, weasel, python, snake, turtle, pangolin … and there are 60 species of freshwater fish and brackish fish living. In particular, melaleuca forest honey bees and annually for large-scale exploitation.
In addition, there are 710 ha of forests on Hon Khoai island cluster and Hon Chuoi island, with many kinds of valuable woods and animals living under the forest canopy.