The people living in Ca Mau province has 14 ethnic groups, including 03 main ethnic groups including Kinh, Khmer and Hoa.
By the beginning of 2017, in the province of Ca Mau, Kinh people accounted for the majority, with about 1.180.000 people, accounting for over 96% of the population and living mostly in parts of the province. Followed by Khmer people, about 33.439 people, accounting for 2,73% of the population, concentrated in temples in both urban and rural areas, forming Khmer hamlets, living by growing rice, vegetables, blankets rearing, small scale trading. The Chinese have 9.418 people, accounting for 0,76% of the population, mainly living in urban areas, living on trading. The rest are other ethnic groups such as: Muong, Thai, Tay, Nung, Giao, Gia rai, Ede, Cham, Chu ru, Si la, foreigners.
The total number of poor and near-poor households among ethnic minorities is about 3.940 households, accounting for 32,93%; in which, poor households are about 3.073 households, accounting for 25,68%; near-poor households are about 867 households, accounting for 7,25%.
People of all ethnic groups in Ca Mau province have their own cultural identity, customs, and traditions but always unite, blend together, contributing to the diversity and richness of national identity.
Over the past time, the Party and the State have paid attention to repairing, upgrading and investing in building new temples, community cultural activities house, crematoriums, creating favorable conditions for ethnic minorities gathered to have some activities on holidays and New Year.
Up to now, the life of ethnic minorities in the province has developed significantly. Many households were granted residential land, productive land, donated houses, provided clean water, provided jobs, students were appointed; places of cultural activities, community festivals, conservation and promotion of national cultural identity, teaching Khmer words … are interested in solving. Infrastructure, especially in rural electricity, roads, schools, health stations, clean water supply systems, etc. are invested in construction. The rate of poor households in ethnic minorities decreases on average. 3-4 percent per year.